Bakunins anti-Jacobinism: Secret societies for self-emancipating collectivist social revolution (Anarchist Studies 20.2, Autumn 2014)
The historiography of nearly the past century and a half may render surprising ‚Äì if not, to some, jolting ‚Äì the juxtaposition, in the title, of the noun ‚Äòanti-Jacobinism‚Äô to the possessive form of Bakunin‚Äôs surname. This is the point. Bakunin‚Äôs idea and practice of ‚Äòsecret societies‚Äô was directed at reversing the Jacobin tradition in European socialism. To indicate and to sketch such a nucleus of the structure of his beliefs, as may be argued to have governed Bakunin‚Äôs mature revolutionary practice, is the purpose of this short article. There is not enough space to review chronologically his various ‚Äòsecret societies‚Äô, but these have been treated in the¬†literature.